Nineteenth and twentieth-century philosophy, literature, and social commentary include numerous references to an inchoate yet widely shared awareness that experiences of distance and space are inevitably transformed by the emergence of high-speed forms of transportation for example, rail and air travel and communication the telegraph or telephone that dramatically heighten possibilities for human interaction across existing geographical and political divides Harvey ; Kern The compression of space presupposes rapid-fire forms of technology; shifts in our experiences of territory depend on concomitant changes in the temporality of human action.
The Americans came late in South-East Asia but their influence spread like wildfire as their reforms on education in the Philippines progressed in their less than half a century colonization of the islands.
Idioms are an important aspect in figurative language. Bilingualism increases amongst the indigenous population through education and increased contacts with English settlers.
Byit was down to about 80 per cent present of English on the internet, and the current figures for are that it is hovering somewhere between 60 percent and 70 percent, with a significant drop likely over the next four or five years.
Dewey observed that small-scale political communities for example, the New England townshipa crucial site for the exercise of effective democratic participation, seemed ever more peripheral to the great issues of an interconnected world.
New high-speed technologies attributed a shifting and unstable character to social life, as demonstrated by increased rates of change and turnover in many arenas of activity most important perhaps, the economy directly affected by them, and the relative fluidity and inconstancy of social relations there.
Despite their ills as instruments of capitalist exploitation, Marx argued, new technologies that increased possibilities for human interaction across borders ultimately represented a progressive force in history.
Nevertheless, Crystal predicts that English will retain its dominant presence. Finally, the outer layer consists of localized varieties which may have similarities with the regional standards or emerging standards.
Growing material inequality spawned by economic globalization is linked to growing domestic material inequality in the rich democracies Falk Indeed, it may no longer be possible to achieve our normative ideals at home without undertaking to do so transnationally as well.
In this view, present-day intellectual interest in the problem of globalization can be linked directly to the emergence of new high-speed technologies that tend to minimize the significance of distance and heighten possibilities for deterritorialization and social interconnectedness.
As we saw above, nineteenth-century thinkers captured at least some of its core features; the compression of territoriality composed an important element of their lived experience. The language was advocated as acceptable for learned and literary use.
Finally, the outer area consists of five groups American EnglishBritish Englishother major varieties, local varieties, foreign varieties each with features peculiar to their own speech community and which are unlikely to be understood by most members of the other four groups.
The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as million, of whom some million are outside the United States. Even the most powerful and privileged political units are now subject to increasingly deterritorialized activities for example, global financial markets over which they have limited control, and they find themselves nested in webs of social relations whose scope explodes the confines of national borders.
Higher education, the legislature and judiciarynational commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. Largely non-voluntary commonalities of belief, history, and custom compose necessary preconditions of any viable democracy, and since these commonalities are missing beyond the sphere of the nation-state, global or cosmopolitan democracy is doomed to fail Archibugi, Held, and Koehler Deterritorialization and interconnectedness initially seem chiefly spatial in nature.
The linking together and expanding of social activities across borders is predicated on the possibility of relatively fast flows and movements of people, information, capital, and goods.
This includes much of the rest of the world's population not categorized above, including territories such as China, Russia, Japan, non-Anglophone Europe especially the Netherlands and Nordic countriesSouth KoreaEgypt and Indonesia. This term is generally used when discussing World Englishes.
Ever since English became the official language, a localized variety gradually emerged - Philippine English. The Faltering Project, Cambridge: The Outer Circle of English was produced by the second diaspora of English, which spread the language through imperial expansion by Great Britain in Asia and Africa.
The estimates of these users range from million to one billion. Held, David,Democracy and the Global Order: Knowledge of English becomes an asset, and a new indigenous elite develops. But in those areas where deterritorialization and social interconnectedness across national borders are especially striking, new transnational institutions for example, cross-border referendaalong with a dramatic strengthening and further democratization of existing forms of supranational authority in particular, the United Nationsare necessary if we are to assure that popular sovereignty remains an effective principle.
In this initial sense of the term, globalization refers to the spread of new forms of non-territorial social activity Ruggie ; Scholte University of Minnesota Press. In this new paradigm, English spreads and adapts according to the linguistic and cultural preferences of its users in the Outer and Expanding circles refer to Kachru's Three Circles of English.
Cosmopolitans not only counter with a flurry of universalist and egalitarian moral arguments, but they also accuse their opponents of obscuring the threat posed by globalization to the particular forms of national community whose ethical primacy communitarians, nationalists, and others endorse.
Literary creativity in local English begins to flourish. Bilingualism increases amongst the indigenous population through education and increased contacts with English settlers.
Since the achievement of justice or democracy, for example, presupposes an effective political sovereign, the lacuna of sovereignty at the global level means that justice and democracy are necessarily incomplete and probably unattainable there. They provided the necessary infrastructure for a cosmopolitan future socialist civilization, while simultaneously functioning in the present as indispensable organizational tools for a working class destined to undertake a revolution no less oblivious to traditional territorial divisions than the system of capitalist exploitation it hoped to dismantle.
It is often suggested that languages are autonomouswhile dialects are heteronomous. Even though geographical location remains crucial for many undertakings for example, farming to satisfy the needs of a local marketdeterritorialization manifests itself in many social spheres.
Rosa, Hartmut,Social Acceleration: Global warming and ozone-depletion cry out for ambitious forms of transnational cooperation and regulation, and the refusal by the rich democracies to accept this necessity implies a failure to take the process of globalization seriously when doing so conflicts with their immediate material interests.
Wallace-Brown, Garrett and Held, David, ed. T1 - Teaching academic writing in context. AU - Xu,Zhichang. PY - Y1 - N2 - English has been widespread around the world from Europe to America,Asia-Pacific and Africa by means of earlier migration and colonization, giving rise. World Englishes in Asian Contexts Yamuna Kachru, Cecil L.
Nelson Published by Hong Kong University Press, HKU Kachru, Yamuna & Nelson, L. World Englishes in Asian. This paper explores the relevance of cultural values and conventions of writing in the context of writing for academic purposes in world varieties of English.
The focus is on argumentative.
Each literate culture has its own conventions of writing, and it is instructive to look at these closely if one is interested in understanding the process of writing, the cultural context of the product, and the cultural value assigned to writing.
World englishes definition, the many and varied dialects of English spoken in different parts of the world, including not only American and British English, but such varieties as Indian, Pakistani, Australian, and New Zealand English, as well as the English spoken in various African and Asian countries.
In some parts of the world, English is spoken as. The article is presented in four sections providing first, an examination of English L2 in the Japanese context, second, an analysis of Japanese to English contrastive rhetoric, and third, a discussion of the debate on Japanese university students’ critical thinking in .Academic writing in world englishes the asian context definition